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Children develop as a result of interacting with experiences and their environment. Without classification, children cannot learn the color of objects and create knowledge. For example, children should see fruit and corresponding symbols at the same time so that they can associate fruit and the symbols representing fruit and should put them in the group of fruit or edible food 5,10,13,14, Social transmission : social transmission includes all that children learn from their mothers, fathers, friends, teachers, books and magazines. It is the culture of the society in which the individual lives.
All societies have certain features typical of themselves and the cognitive development of all individuals has universal features. An example of learning with social transmission is information about nutrition learned from the family and television. When children hear a word which they are not familiar with or which is inconsistent with their prior knowledge, they move away from their prior equilibrium.
Soon they start to seek higher-order equilibrium. Even though social transmission is necessary and important, it is not sufficient on its own. For social adaptation, first of all, language development is required 8,13, It is important for nurses who will give nutrition education to assess a child's maturation process.
In fact, if a child's physical and language development is not adequate, interaction with the environment will be inadequate and the educational method that is used will not be effective. Nurses who know the results of children's interactions with experience and their environment assess past experience before giving nutrition education and increase children's interactions with the environment.
In addition, nurses need to know what children have learned through social transmission. Nutrition education should be based on evaluations of families' food culture and children's nutritional habits. Equilibration : It is the term which combines three factors mentioned before: maturation, experience, social transmission. This term reflects an inborn tendency of thoughts which increasingly gets more balanced, meticulous and consistent in social relations.
According to Piaget, equilibration is a process during which children, using the things they have assimilated before, acquire the appropriate behavior for a given situation. This equilibrium is not static. Children are effective and venturesome. A newly created equilibrium will be disturbed by outer factors and children's activities and will be recreated in a higher order. When children have learned to distinguish fruits from vegetables, they have obtained a more beneficial way of thinking compared to the way of thinking in the past. From then on, they identify a higher number of edible things more accurately.
Thus, they create an equilibration and are less willing to turn to their prior way of thinking 9,11,13, In contrast, disequilibration is a discrepancy between what an individual encounters and what an individual knows. It forces an individual to accommodate newly encountered things into the existing schema or to create a new schema to achieve cognitive balance.
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Piaget noted that cognitive activity brings about learning 5,11, According to Piaget, children undergo four different stages to achieve adult thinking and knowledge mental development. These are sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and abstract operational stages. Each stage is built onto the previous one and helps to evolve a new level. Piaget found that all children go through these stages in order, but the speed at which they go through them differs. A child cannot skip a stage to go to the next stage. The age when children enter and complete a stage may differ with interaction of intelligence and social environment 10,13, In this article, Piaget's preoperational stage of cognitive development in two- to seven-yearold preschool children will be discussed in detail.
During this stage, children have not yet developed logical thinking necessary to do specific operations. Language development is rapid. Children who begin to understand the relationship between an object and the word that represents it quickly discover the world around them. Piaget determined that cognitive development occurs during the process of gaining experiences since childbirth and maturity 5,6,20, It is clear that this process occurs when babies socially interact with their environment Preoperational children are not yet fully developed cognitively. They have begun to acquire the ability to think.
This is the stage in which children learn basic concepts. Pre-operational children learn by imitating, investigating, asking questions, comparing and classifying the things around them. At this age, symbolic play is frequent. For example, they can use rulers as guns or a rod as a horse, or cook with an imaginary cooker. Children may show their conflicts through symbolic plays and achieve their equilibration. The cognitive objective of language and dramatic play is symbolic representation.
Piaget emphasized the role of symbolic play in emotional and social as well as cognitive development of children 13, Children learn concepts more quickly and easily when they do activities themselves. For example, children are encouraged to participate actively in a game as they take on the role of a fruit by having a symbolic picture of that fruit hung around their neck.
Hand skills develop physically as children touch, feel, look, compare, turn and throw.
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They observe and imitate their teachers, parents and other children 16, According to Piaget, children are not passive learners. They have an active role in acquiring knowledge. Educators should keep in their minds that not all children are in the same cognitive stage. When putting a theory into practice, educators should devise group work in which all children can actively participate.
For this reason, it is important for nurses to get children to take an active role in the nutrition education they will provide. Children learn better by doing something. Games which allow children to imitate things, to be physically active and to use objects may facilitate learning in the pre-operational period. Children need to be encouraged to abandon egocentrism and share and cooperate. Written materials need to be of the visual type, such as graphics and pictures 8,10,16,20,23, Explanations, classifications and demonstrations can be used to have children remember what they have learned.
An educator 4 determined that there are some points and guidelines that need to be kept in mind when preparing educational material according to Piaget's theory. They can be listed as in the following:. This will improve memory. Nutrition education can be difficult in the preoperational stage years. Children may not understand what is explained to them about nutrients and the relationship between nutrients and food.
They may not understand the effects of food on the body, either. When adults explain nutrition and health to children, they use words like vitamins, minerals, nutritional food, digestion and risk of illness. It is difficult for children in the preoperational stage to understand and explain abstract concepts like the definition of health or the importance of nutrition. In the preoperational stage, children consider themselves healthy if they can laugh, walk and run 22,25, For this reason, when the importance of nutrition is explained to children in the preoperational stage, instead of abstract nutritional concepts such as nutrients that cannot be seen or touched like vitamins, minerals, proteins, and nutrients' effect on health and growth , concrete statements should be used, and concrete nutritional examples should be given.
Colorful photographs of foods can be helpful.
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The messages in nutrition education need to be simple and positive and focus on behavior. Children in the preoperational stage cannot understand digestion or how nutrients affect the body. They would say, "Small pieces of carrot go to my arms and my legs. A nutrition education program based on Piaget's ideas provides children with many opportunities to discover objects and their environment.
For example, many objects, experiences, such as drawing a picture and games that include nutritional activities, can be used to introduce five-year-olds to the concept of nutrition. Children learn by discovering their environment. The learning environment should allow children to use their senses, include drawing objects classified according to shape, color, number and form and have them participate actively in learning.
A teacher who creates this learning environment observes, asks questions and provides guidance, but does not lecture or demonstrate 11, Children do not think less than adults, but they think differently. For example, the conservation concept is undeveloped and thoughts are irreversible in preoperational children 5,10,,24, A child cannot infer the thought, "if I eat a lot, I will get fat" into the thought, "if I do not eat a lot, I will not get fat.
Children cannot distinguish between living and non-living things. This chaos is called animism. According to Piaget, kindergarten kids believe that stones are animate and that trees think magic thought 11,21, Piaget noted that year-olds can make classifications operationally. Younger children attempts to make classifications, though they are more primitive. Four-five-year-olds can classify such patterns as circles, squares and triangles made of paper into groups according to their geometric forms These features affect lack of acquisition of conservation. Suppose there are two glasses containing the same amount of milk and you pour milk into a long, thin glass and the other into a large in front of a child.
In other words, the child has not acquired logical thinking yet. Piaget defined perception as in the following:. This stage is called preoperational since children do not have the cognitive ability to conduct operations. A characteristic that needs to be kept in mind when teaching children the classification of food groups is not to use many aspects to arouse the children's interest, but to concentrate on one aspect, such as color, shape or contents of the food product 8,13,22,24, In nutrition education, it is important for nurses not to teach many characteristics of a food at a time but to explain only one characteristic, such as color or food group.
For example, it can be difficult for preoperational children to learn that a banana is both a fruit and yellow in color at the same time. Piaget's theory is not just used in nutrition; it has also been used in many other types of studies 27,28, The program included growing and preparing food, developing cognitive skills, encouraging creativity and preparing nutritious snacks.
The classes were divided into two experimental and two control groups and every group had children. The program contained 12 nutrition education activities. The children were asked to define foods, to classify foods fruit-vegetable , to match food pictures, and to show pictures of what should be done before and after eating show a picture of soap before eating and a toothbrush after eating. The results showed that three- to five-year-olds could easily define foods.
The children's posttest nutritional knowledge score was higher on defining food. Lee et al. Twenty children were taught in the development laboratory, 20 were taught in their homes by their parents and 20 children were the control group. During the education, food profile cards that had pictures of the food and its name were used. At the end of the education, the children were able to use cards that had pictures of food and graphs graphs of vitamins A and C and calcium. It was concluded that the children offered education in the classroom learned better than the children taught at home and the control groups.
Nutrition education was shown to increase the children's understanding of the concepts of health and illness Singleton et al. A four-week education program on the prevention of heart disease and improving health was offered. The children were evaluated though six open-ended semi-structured and 11 closed-ended questions done during minute interviews. The investigators made a concept map based on the results of the interviews. Education was found to increase the children's understanding of the relationship between health and nutrition Auld et al. In a quasi-experimental study, class activities were implemented, teachers were interviewed and the food leftovers were observed.
At the end of the study, the students in the experimental classroom had an increase in their knowledge, self-confidence in food preparation and consumption of fruits and vegetables.
The authors suggested that education theories can be used for behavior changing Based on the results of the studies reviewed, nutrition education based on Piaget's theory is effective. However, further studies using Piaget's cognitive development theory are needed to reveal the effect and reliability of the theory. Piaget's cognitive development theory has been selected as a theoretical framework for the nutrition education guidance of preschool children.
This theory provides a philosophical explanation of using knowledge, development and cognitive processes. The theory proposes that there should be a bridge between cognition, learning and behavior. Piaget's theory allows us to understand children's cognitive development and how and when they learn things. The preschool and school periods are important stages where children start to learn concepts and learn about their environment. Especially considering that preschool children do not have sufficient cognitive development, education offered at this age should be appropriate for their cognitive development In fact, education not suitable for a given stage may have a negative impact on children.
Piaget's theory offers ways to teach effectively and guides us in designing education programs. Children and their families need information about nutrition and other topics. Using the stages involved in the theory -schema, adaptation and equilibration - helps us make associations between the selected topics. It also helps planning education which encourages children to be active and creative and self-learning. When nurses prepare education programs which encourage thinking and learning, they should be aware of the cognitive developmental stages of the children.
For example, a nurse who knows that simple, concrete and correct expressions should be used when talking to children under seven years old can communicate more easily and effectively. Therefore, the results of this review will provide guidance for nurses dietitians and other professionals who plan nutrition education for preschool children.
It is recommended that nurses carry out studies that determine behavior changes regarding nutrition and other areas by using Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory. BAHAR encouraged the writing of this review. All the authors made critical reviews to the paper and helped organize the review. The treatment and prevention of obesity: a systematic review of the literature.
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Instead, he proposed that learning is a dynamic process comprising successive stages of adaption to reality during which learners actively construct knowledge by creating and testing their own theories of the world , 8. Equilibration takes place through a process of adaption; that is, assimilation of new information to existing cognitive structures and the accommodation of that information through the formation of new cognitive structures.
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For example, learners who already have the cognitive structures necessary to solve percentage problems in mathematics will have some of the structures necessary to solve time-rate-distance problems, but they will need to modify their existing structures to accommodate the newly acquired information to solve the new type of problem. Thus, learners adapt and develop by assimilating and accommodating new information into existing cognitive structures.
Piaget suggested that there are four main stages in the cognitive development of children. In the first two years, children pass through a sensorimotor stage during which they progress from cognitive structures dominated by instinctual drives and undifferentiated emotions to more organized systems of concrete concepts, differentiated emotions, and their first external affective fixations. The second stage of development lasts until around seven years of age. Children begin to use language to make sense of reality. They learn to classify objects using different criteria and to manipulate numbers.
From the ages of seven to twelve years, children begin to develop logic, although they can only perform logical operations on concrete objects and events. In adolescence, children enter the formal operational stage, which continues throughout the rest of their lives. Adolescent children develop the ability to perform abstract intellectual operations, and reach affective and intellectual maturity. They learn how to formulate and test abstract hypotheses without referring to concrete objects. Although the theory is not now as widely accepted, it has had a significant influence on later theories of cognitive development.
For instance, the idea of adaption through assimilation and accommodation is still widely accepted. William G. Perry, an educational researcher at Harvard University, developed an account of the cognitive and intellectual development of college-age students through a fifteen-year study of students at Harvard and Radcliffe in the s and s.
Perry generalized that study to give a more detailed account of post-adolescent development than did Piaget.
ignamant.cl/wp-includes/56/1868-como-intervenir-un.php He also introduced the concept of positionality and formulated a less static view of developmental transitions. The sequence of cognitive structures that make up the developmental process may be described in terms of cross-sections of cognitive structures representative of different stages in the developmental sequence. Each stage is construed as a relatively stable, enduring cognitive structure, which includes and builds upon past structures. Stages are characterized by the coherence and consistency of the structures that compose them. The transition between stages is mediated by less stable, less consistent transitional structures.
Freud, Whitehead, and Piaget all use the notion of a stage in this way. Perry rejects the notion of a stage. Instead, he introduces the notion of a position. However, he laid far greater emphasis on the idea that learners approach knowledge from a variety of different standpoints. Thus, according to Perry, gender, race, culture, and socioeconomic class influence our approach to learning just as much as our stage of cognitive development xii.
We each interpret the world from a different position 46 and each person may occupy several positions simultaneously with respect to different subjects and experiences xii. The developmental process is a constantly changing series of transitions between various positions. Perry identifies nine basic positions, of which the three major positions are duality, multiplicity, and commitment. However, the idea of positionality has had a significant influence on social identity theory and his account of developmental transitions is consonant with current approaches to adult learning xii.
Perry, William G. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.