Manual Identity and Justice

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The rapporteurship is tasked with advising the IACHR on petitions and cases concerning sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression; providing technical support to Member States; preparing reports on the rights of LGBTI persons; and monitoring the human rights violations against LGBTI persons in the Americas. Within the European continent, the Council of Europe has taken positive steps to identify and respond to discrimination, violence and other issues affecting the LGBTI community.

The Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Unit within the Council of Europe is responsible for working with relevant stakeholders on issues of sexual orientation and gender identity issues. Emphasizing the universality of human rights and the importance of non-discrimination, the recommendation called upon Member States to take positive steps to protect the rights if the LGBTI community. The Council of Europe also published a report, Discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation or gender Identity in Europe , which addresses homophobia, transphobia and discrimination within the 47 Member States of the Council of Europe and makes recommendations for their prevention.

Council of Europe, Discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation or gender Identity in Europe International human rights law guarantees freedom from discrimination in the enjoyment of human rights for all people, including LGBTI individuals. The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to guarantee that the rights enunciated in the present Covenant will be exercised without discrimination of any kind as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

Although sexual orientation and gender identity are not explicitly included in the list of protected categories, the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights CESCR has established that both are protected by the non-discrimination provision above.

Similarly, other human rights courts and quasi-judicial bodies have confirmed that States may not enact laws or policies or implement practices that treat persons differently on the basis of their sexual orientation or gender identity without providing adequate justification for the treatment that meets the appropriate legal standards. Australia , Communication No. Merits, Reparations and Costs. Judgment of February 24, Series C No.

Croatia , Complaint No. As a general rule, discrimination occurs when a person is treated differently than someone else in a similar situation, and this treatment causes that person harm or prevents his or her enjoyment of one or more human rights. The Yogyakarta Principles define discrimination as:. Yogyakarta Principles , principle 2. Discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity can affect every aspect of life, including housing, education, employment, healthcare, and family life. To meet this standard, States must show that the treatment pursues a legitimate aim and the means are proportional to the aim.

If the difference in treatment does not meet this standard, then it is arbitrary and violates the human rights of the affected parties. Austria , no. Judgment of February 24 , As indicated above, several human rights bodies, including the Inter-American Commission and the European Court, have found that sexual orientation is protected by non-discrimination provisions in human rights instruments even though it is not explicitly listed as a protected category. Austria , Judgment of 24 July , para. France [GC], no. In order to fulfill their obligations under international human rights treaties, States must take appropriate steps to ensure that LGBTI persons can enjoy their human rights free from discrimination.

For example, Article 2 2 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights places the following obligation on State parties:. Where not already provided for by existing legislative or other measures, each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to take the necessary steps, in accordance with its constitutional processes and with the provisions of the present Covenant, to adopt such laws or other measures as may be necessary to give effect to the rights recognized in the present Covenant.

Should States fail to take the necessary steps, individuals may bring claims to the appropriate court or oversight mechanism. Certain practices and policies, such as the criminalization of homosexuality, the denial of same-sex marriage rights, and the recognition of gender identity, have a particular impact on the human rights of LGBTI persons.

International human rights law in this area continues to develop, generally in favor of increased protection for LGBTI persons.

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In more than 70 countries, persons engaging in private, consensual sexual acts with persons of the same sex are at risk of criminal prosecution, and may face severe penalties, including capital punishment. A number of cases, the majority before the European Court of Human Rights, have been brought alleging that this practice violates one or more human rights. There are two separate categories of cases. These include challenges to the laws criminalizing homosexuality and challenges to discriminatory laws concerning the age of consent.

Australia , Views of 31 March The European Court has repeatedly found that laws criminalizing sexual relationships between consenting adults of the same sex violate the right to privacy under Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights. ECtHR, Dudgeon v. In Dudgeon v. The European Court has also made clear that the mere existence of a law criminalizing homosexuality may violate the right to privacy even if the State does not actively enforce the prohibition.

Cyprus , Series A no. In the case of Toonen v. Australia the applicant claimed that laws criminalizing homosexual relations between consenting adult males were discriminatory and resulted in a violation of his private life. See Human Rights Committee, Toonen v. In this case, the State argued that the criminalization of homosexuality was necessary for the protection of public health and morals.

Like the ECtHR, the Human Rights Committee rejected these justifications finding that they failed to meet the reasonableness requirement. The ECtHR has also heard several cases involving the criminalization of same-sex sexual relationships involving individuals below the legal age of consent. These cases are distinct from the cases discussed above and typically arose because State laws imposed a different age of consent on individuals engaging in male homosexual sexual relationships than those engaging in heterosexual or lesbian sexual relationships.

Austria , nos. Applicants claimed that the difference in the age of consent violated the prohibition on discrimination Article 14 together with the right to privacy Article 8 under the European Convention on Human Rights. Austria , Judgment of 9 January , para. In the case of L.


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Austria , the government defended the homosexual age of consent law as necessary to protect the sexual development of adolescent boys. ECthHR, L. Notably, prior to the decisions in the cases brought against Austria and the United Kingdom, these States repealed the laws in question and replaced them with laws that applied to all persons regardless of sexual orientation. Austria , Judgment of 9 January , paras. Although universal and regional human rights instruments often contain provisions recognizing the right to marry for adult men and women, no such convention explicitly includes the right for same-sex couples to enter into matrimony.

In this regard, the Yogyakarta Principles also do not specifically require marriage equality. Many States only authorize or recognize marriages by couples composed of one man and one woman, according to the domestic law. However, national and local governments frequently adopt new legislation to recognize same-sex marriages or partnerships.

Although international human rights law has not yet been interpreted to require States to ensure marriage equality, a small number of cases before United Nations and regional human rights bodies have begun to flesh out the underlying principles. However, these bodies appear reluctant to recognize marriage equality as a fundamental right unless and until this becomes the cultural and legal norm.

Both the European Court of Human Rights and the United Nations Human Rights Committee have found that States are not required under the relevant human rights instruments to allow same-sex couples to marry. In , the European Court of Human Rights first addressed the right of same-sex couples to marry in Schalk and Kopf v. The applicants in the case claimed that the Austrian law limiting marriage to heterosexual couples violated Article 12 the right to marry and found a family and Article 14 freedom from discrimination taken together with Article 8 right to private and family life.

Austria , Judgment of 24 June , para.

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Justice and identity: changing perspectives on what is fair.

The ECtHR has considered whether or not a State could offer an alternative form of legal partnerships, such as a civil union, to heterosexual couples and not homosexual couples. ECtHR, Vallianatos and others v. Greece [GC] , no. However, this case only addressed the validity of an existing law and did not address any positive obligation of States to provide an alternative to marriage. The applicants in Vallianatos and others a homosexual couple, six other Greek nationals, and an association based in Athens challenged a Greek law that only offered civil unions to heterosexual couples and not homosexual couples.

The applicants claimed that the law violated their right to private and family life Article 8 and was discriminatory Article 14 , noting that the difference in treatment was detrimental to same sex couples. However, the decision indicated an acceptance of the Paraguayan definition of marriage as between a man and a woman. In practice, State action on these issues varies widely and human rights bodies have not yet required States to extend full and equal benefits to same-sex partners in all cases. For example, in Mata Estevez v.

Spain dec. Marriage was not a requirement under the law, and the Court found denying the same benefits to same-sex couples as were offered to heterosexual couples to be discriminatory, in part because the State offered no justification for the difference in treatment. ECtHR, P. Austria , Judgment of 22 July , para. The Commission found the petition presented allegations that could constitute violations the rights to humane treatment, judicial guarantees, equality before the law, and judicial protection under the American Convention on Human Rights.

In the case of Young v. Australia , the applicant claimed that the denial of pension benefits on the basis of his same-sex relationship violated his right to equality under the law and freedom from discrimination. The Committee emphasized that the State had failed to provide any justification for denying pensions to unmarried same-sex partners while granting them to unmarried opposite sex partners.

Human Rights Committee, Young v. For many trans and intersex persons, barriers to legal and societal recognition of gender identity limit their ability to fully enjoy their human rights.


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  • Germany , no. Although the European Court of Human Rights has addressed several key issues related to gender identity — including limitations on gender reassignment surgery, legal recognition of post-operative gender identity, and the right to marriage for post-operative trans persons — these topics have not yet been decided by other human rights bodies. Trans persons may elect to undergo gender reassignment surgery. Several claims have been submitted to the ECtHR concerning barriers applicants have faced when pursuing gender reassignment surgery. Based on the facts of the case, the Court found no violation of the prohibition on inhuman and degrading treatment.

    ECtHR, L v. Lithuania , no. The European Court has also heard several cases concerning both pre- and post-operative insurance coverage. Switzerland , no. Germany , Judgment of 12 June In Van Kuck v. Therefore, the Court found a violation of Article 8. Additionally, an application currently pending before the ECtHR concerns the Turkish requirement that persons undergoing gender reassignment surgery be declared permanently infertile or be surgically sterilized.

    The applicant in the case has claimed that this law violated her right to respect for private life as protected by Article 8 of the European Convention. Turkey , no. While intersex persons may also face challenges relating to both involuntary gender reassignment as a child and voluntary gender reassignment surgery as an adult, international and regional human rights courts have not yet rendered any decisions on these issues.

    The Yogyakarta Principles , while acknowledging the importance of allowing elective gender reassignment surgery, emphasizes that these procedures should only be performed with the full consent of an individual. Trans, intersex, and other persons may face legal and social barriers in obtaining official recognition of their gender identity. For individuals whose anatomical sex does not match their personal gender identity or who have undergone sex reassignment surgery, securing identification documents or gaining access to benefits reserved for one gender may present significant challenges.

    While some States allow trans individuals to change their name to reflect their post-operative gender, the State may not consider the applicant to be of that same gender in other areas. The European Court of Human Rights has heard several cases involving the legal identity of postoperative transsexuals.

    Initially, the Court did not require States to change their laws and practices to provide transsexual persons with full recognition of their gender identity. In the case of Rees v. ECtHR, Rees v. Based on these assertions, the Court determined that restricting the rights of same sex couples did not violate the right to marry.

    However, in subsequent cases the European Court has required States to provide full recognition of the post transition gender of a trans person. France , Series A no. The Court found a violation of the right to private life Article 8 for transsexuals for the first time in the B. ECtHR, B. France , Judgment of 25 March Then, in the landmark case of Christine Goodwin v. We first review the research on work identity. We then review research on work motivation and organizational justice. Finally, we formulate the objectives and the associated hypotheses of the present study.

    According to, for example, McConnell the self is a collection of multiple, context-dependent selves resulting in multiple identities. Given this, we can say that work identity involves two levels of abstraction as two different knowledge structures Kihlstrom et al. In line with the self-categorization theory e. Personal and collective work identities are relatively independent of each other, meaning that having a strong identity at one level does not rule out a similarly strong identity on another level Brewer and Gardner, ; Pate et al.

    It is furthermore suggested that these constructs might differ along the dimension of inclusiveness Sluss and Ashforth, ; Miscenko and Day, , resulting in different self-related definitions and interpretations Sedikides et al. Therefore, it is associated with individual self-related cognitions, interests, values, attitudes, motivations and behaviors Ybarra and Trafimow, ; Johnson et al.

    By consequence, the stronger the personal work identity the stronger personal goals, preferences and needs will be Brewer and Gardner, ; Ybarra and Trafimow, ; Ellemers et al.

    Accordingly, this phenomenon involves cognitions, interests, values, norms, motivations and behaviors related to the identity of a group or an organization Ybarra and Trafimow, ; Johnson et al. This suggests that normative and motivational mechanisms of the We will be generated by the depersonalized individual Brewer and Gardner, ; Ybarra and Trafimow, ; Ellemers et al. Along the lines of Knez and Knez proposed a conceptual model of the work-related self, a personal work identity including emotion and cognition categorizations of the work, based on the autobiographical memory research e.

    This theoretical frame of reference furthermore implies that that the work identity encompassing above mentioned cognitive and emotional processes is a higher order cognitive construct Law et al. Knez predicted that the emotional component will precede the cognitive one in establishing personal work identity see Knez and Eliasson, for similar argument. Finally, Knez model is general in its formulations, meaning that the psychological mechanisms accounting for the person-work bonding can be applied in both personal and collective accounts.

    This suggests that the cognitive component in organizational identity, in terms of incorporation, identification and assimilation, might precede the emotional component, in terms of affective commitment, esteem and pride Mael and Ashforth, ; van Knippenberg and Sleebos, In sum, the concept of work identity used in this study involves two theoretical perspectives, levels of abstraction in general terms foci of identification, e. As a result, we broaden the multiple focus of identification concept as a part of everyday organizational life to include personal, autobiographical work-related experiences personal work identity.

    Research on work motivation has previously shown associations between work motivation and well-being Baard et al. One of the major theories in motivation, Self-Determination Theory Deci and Ryan, , ; Ryan and Deci, a , , has been broadly applied in the occupational work-context. Three basic psychological needs are assumed to form the foundation on which self-determined work motivation relies Deci and Ryan, ; van den Broeck et al.

    Finally, previous findings indicate that the more one identifies with occupational work the stronger self-determined work motivation will be, and the stronger one perceives the views of one's organization to be the less one's self-determined motivation is presumed to be Deci and Ryan, ; van den Broeck et al. Given all this, in this study the concept of work motivation was operationalized as the work self-determined motivation.

    Organizational justice has been shown to associate with both individual and organizational outcomes Greenberg, ; Colquitt et al. Several predictors of organizational justice have also been indicated, such as trust in the supervisor or organization Aryee et al. This construct has furthermore been shown to comprise four independent dimensions Colquitt, ; Ambrose and Arnaud, ; Colquitt and Shaw, ; Greenberg and Colquitt, ; Ambrose and Schminke, ; Nicklin et al. Procedural justice involves perceptions of fairness related to organizational procedures Colquitt et al. Also, consistency, correctness, lack of bias, and accuracy foster this dimension Leventhal, Distributive justice involves perceptions of fairness related to the distribution of outcomes such as money, rewards, and time Colquitt et al.

    It is fostered when outcomes are consistent with respect to equity and equality Adams, ; Leventhal, and when personal effort-outcome ratios match effort-outcome ratios of significant others Adams, Interpersonal justice involves perceptions of the supervisor's conduct, in terms of being courteous. Informative justice involves the amount, quality and timing of the information received by the employee Greenberg, Previous research strongly suggests including all four justice dimensions in studies related to organizational context issues Bies, However, since this phenomenon emanates from the organizational work-environment and thus has the organization, i.

    In line with self-categorization theory e. Within the frameworks of social identity theory Tajfel and Turner, , ; see Hogg, for a review , the two predominating foci of identification and outcomes have been work-group relational level and organization collective level , both involving a social focus of identification. This means that the personal focus of identification has to a large extent been neglected in previous research van Dick and Wagner, ; Riketta, ; Riketta and Van Dick, Given this, the aim of the present study was to explicitly test the general notion of foci of identification and its associated effects within and beyond the social focus of identification.

    This was done by investigating both the personal and the collective focus of identification in relation to work-related motivation and justice. By consequence and given that personal and collective work identity might tap psychological processes at different levels of abstraction Haslam et al. It has, for example, been reported that collective work identity is not associated with individual internal motivation van Knippenberg and van Schie, , and that a positive association between collective work identity and organizational-related motivation and behaviors is stronger in a collectivistic vs.

    The two different structures of work identity have been, furthermore, related to different motivational van Knippenberg and van Schie, ; Ellemers et al. Previous studies have, however, largely addressed the motivational issues on behalf of the organizational collective as opposed to the personal motivation to perform well. Most previous findings on the relationships between work identity and organizational justice have, in line with the group-engagement model Tyler and Blader, ; Blader and Tyler, , focused on justice as a decisive predictor of different levels of work identity.

    This was done to clarify the role of identity-based information incorporated in organizational justice Lipponen et al. Finally, interaction effects of social identity and organizational justice dimensions on different work-related outcomes have additionally been investigated Cremer, ; Lipponen et al. Regarding the relationship between work identity and organizational justice, it is suggested that the self-constitutes one of the predicting foundations for self-reported justice Skitka, Several findings have indicated that this association primarily concerns collective work identity Olkkonen and Lipponen, ; Blader and Tyler, ; Cho and Treadway, ; Ehrhardt et al.

    Despite the previous research on work-related motivation and justice no previous research has, as far as we know, investigated the role of personal and collective work identity in predicting these constructs. Accordingly, and in line with the general notion of foci of identification and its associated effects van Dick and Wagner, ; Riketta and Van Dick, ; Olkkonen and Lipponen, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between personal and collective work identity, as predictors, and work-related motivation and justice as criterion variables. This involves both matching variables and two levels of explanation; that is, a link between: 1 Personal work identity and work-related Self -determined motivation personal level of explanation ; and 2 Collective work identity and Organizational pay justice collective level of explanation.

    Hypothesis 1. In accordance with Deci and Ryan and van den Broeck et al. Accordingly, the association might be stronger when identity and motivation conceptually match Riketta and Van Dick, ; Olkkonen and Lipponen, Hence, we predicted a stronger positive association of personal work identity work self-determined motivation than collective work identity work self-determined motivation. Hypothesis 2. In line with Knez and Knez and Eliasson , we predicted that emotion compared to cognition component of personal work identity would show a stronger positive association with work self-determined motivation.

    Hypothesis 3. This suggests that organizational compared to individual work-related issues might be more central to organizational justice Tajfel and Turner, ; Cremer, ; Blader and Tyler, Hypothesis 4. In line with some previous research suggesting organizational identity to be more of a cognitive structure of shared collective and individual cognitions Harquail and King, ; Haslam and Ellemers, ; Corley et al. Ninety-nine percent of the participants had an educational function, that is, they worked as teachers or similar.

    Also, the participants worked within the municipal sector Mean age was The positive part of the scale indicates self-determined work motivation, while the negative one indicates non-self-determined work motivation Vallerand and Ratelle, ; Tremblay et al. In order to measure organizational pay justice as a construct derived from the more general concept of organizational justice, we used Colquitt's item measure Colquitt and Shaw, ; see also Greenberg, , measuring Procedural pay justice e.

    This indicates very good internal consistency for organizational pay justice dimensions DeVellis, In order to measure personal work identity we used a measure suggested by Knez , and Knez and Eliasson Participants were asked to respond to the statements on a 5-point Likert-scale ranging from 1 completely disagree to 5 completely agree. In addition, we examined the construct validity of the personal work identity construct with a confirmatory factor analysis, including a second-order factor representing a general personal work identity construct, with cognitive and emotional components as first-order factors.

    This measure includes six statements with a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 completely disagree to 5 completely agree. Based on the conceptual model of Knez , that distinguishes between an emotion and a cognition component of the work-related personal and collective self Jackson et al. This was done in line with Mael and Ashforth's suggestions. We also, as above, examined the construct validity of the collective work identity construct, including a second-order factor representing a general collective work identity, with cognitive and emotional components as first-order factors.

    Chairpersons of 11 municipal associations of the Swedish trade union The National Union of Teachers were contacted and informed of the purpose of the present study. They were asked to invite their union members to participate in the present study, of which they approved. Due to Swedish juridical restrictions that do not permit a chairperson of a union to distribute individual e-mail addresses of the members, a web-link to the questionnaire was distributed to the members by the chairpersons.

    The questionnaires were accompanied by a covering letter that described the purpose of the study and informed the participants that completion of the questionnaire was taken as an indication of their consent to participate in the present study, and that this was voluntary and that confidentiality and anonymity was assured. After completion of the questionnaire the participants were asked to fill in their name and address if they wanted to receive a cinema ticket as compensation for their participation. They were informed that nobody but the researchers of the present study would have access to their names and addresses.

    In line with the four hypotheses, four types of multiple hierarchical regression analyses were performed in order to investigate the role of personal and collective work identity in predicting motivation and justice at work:. In all four analyses, we controlled additionally for the effects of: monthly income ; school sector public vs.

    The Nature of Justice - Amartya Sen

    These variables have previously been addressed as potential confounders, related to work self-determination motivation Amabile et al. In order to specify a fixed order of entry to control for the effects of potential confounders, in the four multiple hierarchical regression analyses, the covariates were entered in step one and predictors in step two.

    Original Research ARTICLE

    First, we report the bivariate correlations, N , mean and standard deviation statistics for all variables included in the regression analyses see Table 1. Second, we report the results obtained in accordance with our hypotheses and the types of regression analyses associated with each one of the four hypotheses respectively see section Design and Analyses. Table 1. Bivariate correlations r , N , mean M , and standard deviation SD statistics for all variables included in regression analyses.

    As predicted Hypothesis 1 , personal compared to collective work-related identity was shown to positively associate with work self-determined motivation see Table 2 ; see also Appendix 1 for the first step regression statistics. Table 2. Relation between personal- PWI and collective CWI work identity and work self-determined motivation after controlling for the four covariates monthly income, school sector, years of employment, permanent employment.

    In agreement with Hypothesis 2 , emotion- compared to cognition component of personal work identity was shown to positively associate with work self-determined motivation see Table 3 ; see also Appendix 1 for the first step regression statistics. Table 3. Relation between emotion- E- and cognition C- component of personal work identity PWI and work self-determined motivation after controlling for the four covariates monthly income, school sector, years of employment, permanent employment.

    Together, personal- and collective work identity predicted all organizational pay justice dimensions, with an additional explained variance of Consistent with Hypothesis 3 collective- compared to personal work identity was shown to positively associate with all organizational pay justice dimensions see Table 4 ; see also Appendix 2 for the first step regression statistics. Table 4. Relation between personal- PWI and collective CWI work identity and organizational pay justice dimensions after controlling for the four covariates monthly income, school sector, years of employment, permanent employment.

    In line with Hypothesis 4 , cognition vs. In other words, the cognition component of collective work identity accounted for a stronger association with three dimensions of organizational pay justice than did the emotion component of collective work identity see Table 5 ; see also Appendix 2 for the first step regression statistics. Table 5. Relation between emotion- E- and cognition C- component of collective work identity CWI and organizational pay justice dimensions after controlling for the four covariates monthly income, school sector, years of employment, permanent employment.

    In line with a general notion of focus of identification and its associated effects van Dick and Wagner, ; Riketta and Van Dick, ; Olkkonen and Lipponen, and our predictions, we showed that both personal and collective work identity played significant, but different roles in predicting work-related motivation and organizational pay justice respectively. These relationships were, furthermore, not influenced by any of the previously suggested confounders of monthly income, school sector, years of employment, and permanent employment Amabile et al.

    More precisely and concerning Hypotheses 1 and 2 , it was shown that personal compared to collective work identity positively associated with work self-determined motivation, accounted for by the emotion component of personal work identity. Also, this is in accordance with previous research indicating that occupational task identity i. Furthermore, the present results are in accordance with findings that collective organizational identity is neither positively nor negatively associated with satisfaction of personal motivators and needs, i.

    By this, one might suppose that the personal- compared to collective work identity constitutes a crucial foundation on which satisfaction of the psychological needs Deci and Ryan, is based. The results related to Hypothesis 2 are in line with Knez and Knez and Eliasson , showing that emotion component precedes the cognitive one in personal identity and by that accounts for its effects. This implies that the extent to which work motivation is self-determined, i. In general, this is also in line with findings showing that emotion may regulate intrinsic psychological processes Gross, , and enhance retention and recall in autobiographical memory Canli et al.

    Regarding Hypotheses 3 and 4 , collective compared to personal work identity was reported to positively associate with organizational pay justice accounted for by the cognition component of collective work identity. Firstly, this is in line with previous findings showing that the individual self-concept is not associated with organizational pay justice, while the collective self-concept is positively associated with different organizational pay justice dimensions Johnson et al.

    This indicates that collective contrary to personal work identity has stronger associations with whether one judges the outcomes, procedures, interpersonal treatment and communication in an organizational context to be more or less fair. Furthermore, the results related to Hypothesis 3 are in line with the Accessible Identity Model which posits that how people define and perceive justice depends on which aspect of the self social, personal etc.

    Thus, in order to understand perceptions and reasons about justice one has to know the accessibility of different self-aspects, indicating the self as one of the predicting foundations of justice perceptions Skitka, Secondly, the results related to Hypothesis 4 are in accordance with previous studies indicating that in contrast to personal- collective organizational work identity is more of a cognitive structure Harquail and King, Thus, how fair one judges the outcomes, procedures, interpersonal treatment and communication in an organizational context to be is strongly related to processes of incorporation, identification and assimilation making up the cognitive bond to the organization, compared to processes of affective commitment, esteem and pride making up the emotional bond to the organization Mael and Ashforth, ; van Knippenberg and Sleebos, Finally, our results are in general consistent with the suggestion that when focus of identity match the focus of outcome, the association will be stronger compared to when the two foci do not match van Dick and Wagner, ; Riketta and Van Dick, ; Olkkonen and Lipponen, Given this, our findings extend the results of Riketta and Van Dick and Olkkonen and Lipponen by showing that the notion of foci of identification and its associated effects also yields both individual and collective work identity.

    Our results highlight the importance of person-work bonding by suggesting that motivation and justice at work might be, to some extent, accounted for by the psychological mechanisms of work identity. We have also reported that these relationships were not influenced by the previously indicated confounders of monthly income, school sector, years of employment, and permanent employment Amabile et al.

    Hence, we have shown that the links between work identity and other work-related constructs are stronger when foci of categorization between the constructs match. As a result, when both the type of identity and the outcome are conceptually related the association will be stronger; however, differing across personal and collective work identity respectively. In other words, the emotion component of work identity was more pronounced in personal work-bonding relationships, and the cognitive component of work identity, in contrast, was more pronounced in collective work-bonding relationships.

    Practically this implies that emotional personal- and cognitive collective work identity constitute psychological resources for the teachers in their everyday work setting Bakker and Demerouti, ; Bakker and Bal, ; Choochom, More precisely, when teachers feel more and think less about their personal work-bonding, they are more self-determined motivated and so may have stronger need satisfaction regarding competence, relatedness and autonomy Deci and Ryan, ; van den Broeck et al.

    By contrast, when teachers think more and feel less about their collective work-bonding, they experience a stronger sense of justice regarding the procedural, interpersonal and informative aspects of their payment. This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of APA with written informed consent from all subjects. ON collected the data, did the data analyses and wrote all manuscript sections together with IK. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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    Communities of Memory: On Witness, Identity, and Justice

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    The 'what' and 'why' of goal pursuits: human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Inquiry 11, — Handbook of Self-determination Research. University Rochester Press. Self-determination theory: a macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health. Weiner and W. Craighead John Wiley and Sons, Inc. DeVellis, R. Scale Development: Theory and Applications, 2nd Edn.

    Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Ehrhardt, K. Ellemers, N. Motivating individuals and groups at work: a social identity perspective on leadership and group performance. Elliot, A. Deci and R. Ryan University Rochester Press , — Folger, R. Fortin, M. Perspectives on organizational justice: concept clarification, social context integration, time and links with morality.