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NMDA hypofunction as a convergence point for progression and symptoms of schizophrenia. Front Cell Neurosci. Int J Appl Pharm Biotechnol.

Plant Alkaloids A Guide to Their Discovery and Distribution

J Ayurvedic Herb Med. Alkaloids: An overview of their antibacterial, antibiotic-enhancing and antivirulence activities. Elsevier B. Plant alkaloids as drug leads for Alzheimer's disease. Neurochem Int. Amirkia V, Heinrich M. Alkaloids as drug leads - A predictive structural and biodiversity-based analysis. Phytochem Lett. Abhijit Dey AM. Neuroprotective activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition of five Amaryllidaceae species: A comparative study.

Life Sci. Inhibitory effect of Berberis vulgaris aqueous extract on acquisition and reinstatement effects of morphine in conditioned place preferences CPP in mice. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod. Pharmacological effects of berberine and its derivatives: a patent update.


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Expert Opin Ther Pat. Therapeutic potential of berberine against neurodegenerative diseases. Mojarad TB, Roghani M. The anticonvulsant and antioxidant effects of berberine in kainate-induced temporal lobe epilepsy in rats. Basic Clin Neurosci. Acqua SD. Plant-derived acetylcholinesterase inhibitory alkaloids for the treatment of Alzheimer ' s disease. Bot Targets Ther. Kumar A, Singh A, Ekavali. A review on Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology and its management: An update. Parkinsons Dis. Anticonvulsant mechanisms of piperine, a piperidine alkaloid.

Cell Mol Neurobiol. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase by derivatives of piperine, an alkaloid from the pepper plant Piper nigrum, for possible use in Parkinson's disease. Bioorganic Med Chem Lett. Mol Divers. The effects of lobeline and naltrexone on methamphetamine-induced place preference and striatal dopamine and serotonin levels in adolescent rats with a history of maternal separation.

Review of the use of botanicals for epilepsy in complementary medical systems - Traditional Chinese Medicine. Cotinine improves visual recognition memory and decreases cortical Tau phosphorylation in the Tg mice. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacology Biol Psychiatry. The pharmacology, toxicology and potential applications of arecoline: a review.

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Epilepsy Behav. Erythrina mulungu alkaloids are potent inhibitors of neuronal nicotinic receptor currents in mammalian cells. Protective effect of berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid ameliorates ethanol-induced oxidative stress and memory dysfunction in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. J Med Food [Internet]. Yan R, Vassar R.

Effects of berberine on beta-secretase activity in a rabbit model of Alzheimer's disease. Arch Med Sci [Internet]. Plant secondary metabolites- potent inhibitors of monoamine oxidase isoforms. Pohanka M. Inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase meet immunity. Exp Gerontol. Berberine prevents nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal loss and suppresses hippocampal apoptosis in mice with Parkinson's disease. Int J Mol Med. Pharmacologic preconditioning with berberine attenuating ischemia-induced apoptosis and promoting autophagy in neuron.

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J Mol Neurosci. J Neurosci [Internet]. Therapeutic concentration of morphine reduces oxidative stress in glioma cell line. Brazilian J Med Biol Res. CNS Neurosci Ther. Dose-response of intrathecal morphine when administered with intravenous ketorolac for post-cesarean analgesia: a two-center, prospective, randomized, blinded trial. In: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. Morphine with adjuvant ketamine versus higher dose of morphine alone for acute pain: A meta-analysis.

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  • The Brazilian Amaryllidaceae as a source of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory alkaloids. Phytochem Rev. Naringin ameliorates pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and associated oxidative stress, inflammation, and cognitive impairment in rats: Possible mechanisms of neuroprotection.

    Effect of isoquinoline alkaloids from two Hippeastrum species on in vitro acetylcholinesterase activity. A potential role of alkaloid extracts from Salsola species Chenopodiaceae in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

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    J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. Ferreira-Vieira T, M. Guimaraes I, R. Silva F, M. Ribeiro F. Alzheimer's disease: Targeting the Cholinergic System. Curr Neuropharmacol. Factors affecting therapeutic response to Rivastigmine in Alzheimer's disease patients in Taiwan. Kaohsiung J Med Sci.

    Pharmacological aspects of galantamine for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Lombardo S, Maskos U. Role of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Alzheimer's disease pathology and treatment. Galantamine in AD: A 6-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial with a 6-month extension. Fuentealba J, Saez-Orellana F. Neuroactive alkaloids that modulate the neuronal nicotinic receptor and provide neuroprotection in an Alzheimer??? Neural Regen Res. Positive allosteric modulation of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors enhances recognition memory and cognitive flexibility in rats.

    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol [Internet]. In vitro biological assessment of berberis vulgaris and its active constituent, berberine: Antioxidants, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-diabetic and anticancer effects. Galantamine protects against beta amyloid peptide-induced DNA damage in a model for Alzheimer's disease. Galantamine slows down plaque formation and behavioral decline in the 5XFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

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    Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. Formulation optimization of galantamine hydrobromide loaded gel drug reservoirs in transdermal patch for Alzheimer's disease. Int J Nanomedicine. Effects of galantamine and galantamine combined with nimodipine on cognitive speed and quality of life in mixed dementia: a week, randomized, placebo-controlled exploratory trial the REMIX study.

    Arq Neuropsiquiatr. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of a Geissospermum Vellosii stem bark fraction. An Acad Bras Cienc. Oxid Med Cell Longev. Indole alkaloids from Geissospermum reticulatum. Docking of the alkaloid geissospermine into acetylcholinesterase: A natural scaffold targeting the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. J Mol Model. Current acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors: A neuroinformatics perspective.

    Effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibition on quality of recovery from isoflurane-induced anesthesia in horses. Am J Vet Res. Efficacy and safety of ondansetron in preventing postanesthesia shivering: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Anesthesiol. Cultivating communities of pratice a guide to managing knowledge. J Knowl Manag Pract. Isorhynchophylline protects against pulmonary arterial hypertension and suppresses PASMCs proliferation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Isorhynchophylline: A plant alkaloid with therapeutic potential for cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases.

    Yokukansan, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, alleviates the emotional abnormality induced by maladaptation to stress in mice. Role of oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease. Biomed Rep. J Alzheimer's Dis. A dual role for the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein in cancer: Mitochondria versus endoplasmic reticulum.

    Systemic exosomal siRNA delivery reduced alpha-synuclein aggregates in brains of transgenic mice. Mov Disord. Recent advances in discovery and development of natural products as source for anti-Parkinson's disease lead compounds. Eur J Med Chem. Isorhynchophylline, a natural alkaloid, promotes the degradation of alpha-synuclein in neuronal cells via inducing autophagy.

    Autophagy and apoptosis dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders. Prog Neurobiol. J Biomol Struct Dyn. Damanhouri ZA. Black Pepper : The King of Spices. Med Aromat Plants. Vasavirama K, Upender M. Piperine: A valuable alkaloid from piper species. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. Hirose S. In: Genetics of Epilepsy. J Nat Med. Rinwa P, Kumar A. Quercetin along with piperine prevents cognitive dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation associated with mouse model of chronic unpredictable stress.

    Arch Pharm Res. J Nutr Biochem. Bioavailability Enhancement by Piperine: A Review.

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    Plant Alkaloids: A Guide to Their Discovery and Distribution - CRC Press Book

    Asian J Biomed Pharm Sci. Lobeline shows protective effects against MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuron death and attenuates behavior deficits in animalsz. Exp Ther Med. J Atten Disord. Aporphine Alkaloids as Ligands for Serotonin Receptors. Med Chem Los Angeles. Steinlein OK. Calcium signaling and epilepsy. Nantenine alkaloid presents anticonvulsant effect on two classical animal models. Beneficial effects of nicotine, cotinine and its metabolites as potential agents for Parkinson's disease. Front Aging Neurosci [Internet].

    Fargo K. Alzheimer's Association Report: Alzheimers disease facts and figures. Alzheimer's Dement. In: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience. A framework for evaluating the public health impact of e-cigarettes and other vaporized nicotine products. Mayer B. How much nicotine kills a human? Tracing back the generally accepted lethal dose to dubious self-experiments in the nineteenth century. Archives of Toxicology. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. The muscarinic system, cognition and schizophrenia. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. Coppola M, Mondola R. Potential action of betel alkaloids on positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia: A review.

    Woo TUW. Neurobiology of schizophrenia onset. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. Associations between betel nut Areca catechu and symptoms of schizophrenia among patients in Nepal: A longitudinal study. Psychiatry Res. Crystal structures of the M1 and M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Decreased muscarinic receptor binding in subjects with schizophrenia: a study of the human hippocampal formation.

    Biol Psychiatry. Cotter D. Cereb Cortex. Nicotine obtained from the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum is the principal alkaloid and chief addictive ingredient of the tobacco smoked in cigarettes, cigars, and pipes. Some alkaloids are illicit drugs and poisons. These include the hallucinogenic drugs mescaline from Anhalonium species and psilocybin from Psilocybe mexicana. Synthetic derivatives of the alkaloids morphine and lysergic acid from C.

    1.1 Therapeutic efficacy of BBR in AD

    The alkaloid coniine is the active component of the poison hemlock Conium maculatum. Strychnine from Strychnos species is another powerful poison.

    Antitumor Activity of Isosteroidal Alkaloids from the Plants in the Genus Veratrum and Fritillaria

    Special methods have been developed for isolating commercially useful alkaloids. In most cases, plant tissue is processed to obtain aqueous solutions of the alkaloids. The alkaloids are then recovered from the solution by a process called extraction , which involves dissolving some components of the mixture with reagents. Different alkaloids must then be separated and purified from the mixture.

    Chromatography may be used to take advantage of the different degrees of adsorption of the various alkaloids on solid material such as alumina or silica. Alkaloids in crystalline form may be obtained using certain solvents. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. See Article History. Read More on This Topic. The pharmacologically active principles of opium reside in its alkaloids, the most important of which, morphine, constitutes about 10 percent….


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    • Start your free trial today for unlimited access to Britannica. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The pharmacologically active principles of opium reside in its alkaloids, the most important of which, morphine, constitutes about 10 percent by weight of raw opium. Other active alkaloids such as papaverine and codeine are present in smaller proportions.

      Opium alkaloids are of two types,…. A mature head of rye may carry several ergots in addition to noninfected kernels. When the grain is harvested, much of the ergot falls to the ground, but some remains on the plants and is mixed with the grain. The alkaloid tubocurarine is the active ingredient in the South American arrow poison, curare obtained from Chondrodendron tomentosum , and is used as a muscle relaxant in surgery.

      Two alkaloids, vincristine and vinblastine from Vinca rosea , are widely used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of many types of cancer. Nicotine obtained from the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum is the principal alkaloid and chief addictive ingredient of the tobacco smoked in cigarettes, cigars, and pipes. Some alkaloids are illicit drugs and poisons. These include the hallucinogenic drugs mescaline from Anhalonium species and psilocybin from Psilocybe mexicana. Synthetic derivatives of the alkaloids morphine and lysergic acid from C.

      The alkaloid coniine is the active component of the poison hemlock Conium maculatum. Strychnine from Strychnos species is another powerful poison. Special methods have been developed for isolating commercially useful alkaloids. In most cases, plant tissue is processed to obtain aqueous solutions of the alkaloids. The alkaloids are then recovered from the solution by a process called extraction , which involves dissolving some components of the mixture with reagents.

      Different alkaloids must then be separated and purified from the mixture. Chromatography may be used to take advantage of the different degrees of adsorption of the various alkaloids on solid material such as alumina or silica. Alkaloids in crystalline form may be obtained using certain solvents. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. See Article History. Read More on This Topic. The pharmacologically active principles of opium reside in its alkaloids, the most important of which, morphine, constitutes about 10 percent….

      Start Your Free Trial Today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The pharmacologically active principles of opium reside in its alkaloids, the most important of which, morphine, constitutes about 10 percent by weight of raw opium. Other active alkaloids such as papaverine and codeine are present in smaller proportions. Opium alkaloids are of two types,….